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Alex Valverde

Professor   |   DVM, DVSc., Diplomate ACVAA

Profile

  • 2019-     Co-supervised resident that obtained Best Scientific Poster presentation at the Veterinary Surgery Summit, ACVS Conference, Las Vegas, Nevada, October.
    • “Effectiveness of a Paravertebral Nerve Block Versus Local Portal Block for Laparoscopic Closure of the Nephrosplenic Space: A Pilot Study” Delli-Rocili M, Cribb N, Trout D, Thomason JJ, Valverde A.
  • 2016-     Granted the title of honorary member of the Spanish Society of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
  • 2009-     Supervised resident that obtained 2nd Best Resident Abstract presentation at the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologist Meeting Conference, Chicago, Illinois, September.
    • “The sparing effect of ketamine on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) determination is not affected by prior mac determination of isoflurane alone in rabbits.”  Gianotti G, Valverde A
  • 2005-     Runner-up for the 2004 Langley prize for best research publication in the Journal of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia:
    • "Effect of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs." Valverde A, Doherty TJ, Hernández J, Davies W. 2004;  31: 264-271. Judged by Professor Jenny Hunter, ex-Editor in Chief of the British Journal of Anaesthesia
  • 2004-     Supervised resident was the winner of the University of Florida Local Phi Zeta Manuscript Competition in the category of Clinical Science:
    • “Comparison of non-invasive cardiac output measurement by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing with the lithium dilution method in anesthetized dogs.”  Gunkel C, Valverde A, Morey T, Hernandez J, Robertson SA.
  • 1998-     Merial Prize for Best Thesis on Pain Relief, France:
    • “Influence of epidural morphine on halothane requirements and cardiovascular function in the dog.” Valverde A. University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, 1990.

Research Interests

  • Potency of inhalation anesthetics
  • Anesthesia/analgesia and locoregional techniques
  • Cardiorespiratory effects of anesthetic drugs and sympathomimetics
  • Equine recovery from anesthesia

Current Research:

  • Epidural dosing: weight versus vertebral column length
  • Cardiorespiratory and recovery effects of different constant rate infusions of lidocaine in anesthetized horses

Current Graduate Students

Teaching

2016-     Carl J. Norden Distinguished Teaching Award from DVM undergraduate phases at OVC.

Selected Publications

Books/Book chapters:

  • Doherty TJ, Valverde A, Reed RA (editors). Manual of Equine Anaesthesia and Analgesia. 2nd edition. Wiley, 2022, in press.
  • Valverde A, Moorman V, Gallacher K. Sedation and anesthesia for urogenital interventions.  In: Clark-Price S, Mama K (eds).  Equine anesthesia and co-existing disease.  Wiley, 2021 (in press).
  • Valverde A. Complications of recovery from general anesthesia. Chapter 16. In: Rubio L, Hendrickson D (eds). Complications in equine surgery. Wiley Blackwell, 2021, pp.154-167.
  • Valverde A.  Local anesthetic techniques.  Chapter 14, In: Mathews KA, Sinclair M, Steele A, Grubb T (eds).  Analgesia and Anesthesia for the Ill or Injured Dog and Cat. Wiley, 2018; pp. 171-203.
  • Sinclair M, Valverde A, Dyson D, Mathews K.  Analgesic and Sedatives.  Chapter 36, In: Mathews KA (ed). Emergency & Critical Care Medicine Manual.  Third Edition.  Lifelearn, Guelph 2017; pp. 327-346.
  • Sinclair M, Valverde A, Dyson D.  Analgesia and Anesthesia for Diagnostic and Minor Procedures.  Chapter 37, In: Mathews KA (ed). Emergency & Critical Care Medicine Manual.  Third Edition.  Lifelearn, Guelph 2017; pp. 347-352.
  • Sinclair M, Valverde A, Dyson D.  Chemical Restraint for Specific Emergencies.  Chapter 38, In: Mathews KA (ed). Emergency & Critical Care Medicine Manual.  Third Edition.  Lifelearn, Guelph 2017; pp.353-368.
  • Sinclair M, Valverde A, Dyson D.  Epidural Analgesia and Anesthesia.  Chapter 39, In: Mathews KA (ed). Emergency & Critical Care Medicine Manual.  Third Edition.  Lifelearn, Guelph 2017; pp. 369-372.
  • Sinclair M, Valverde A, Dyson D.  Induction and Maintenance of General Anesthesia.  Chapter 40, In: Mathews KA (ed). Emergency & Critical Care Medicine Manual.  Third Edition.  Lifelearn, Guelph 2017; pp.373-376.
  • Sinclair M, Valverde A, Dyson D.  Regional Analgesia with Local Anesthesia.  Chapter 41, In: Mathews KA (ed). Emergency & Critical Care Medicine Manual.  Third Edition.  Lifelearn, Guelph 2017; pp.377-384.
  • Valverde A, Sinclair M. Ruminant and Swine Local Anesthetic and Analgesic Techniques. Chapter 51, In: K. Grimm, L. Lamont, W. Tranquilli, S. Greene, S. Robertson (eds) Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia: A Fifth Edition of  Lumb & Jones. Wiley, 2016, p.p. 941-959.
  • Valverde A.  Treatment of acute and chronic pain in ruminants. Chapter 32, In: C. M. Egger, L. Love, T. Doherty (eds) Pain Management in Veterinary Practice. Wiley Blackwell, 2013, p.p. 359-372.
  • Doherty TJ, Valverde A.  Sedation and anaesthesia. Chapter 24, In: T. Mair, S. Love, J. Schumacher, R. Smith, G. Frazer (eds) Equine Medicine, Surgery & Reproduction. 2nd Edition. Elsevier, 2013, p.p. 489-497.
  • Valverde A, Doherty T. Anesthesia and analgesia of ruminants. Chapter 14, In: R. Fish, PJ.Danneman, M. Brown, A. Karas (eds) Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, Second Edition, 2008, p.p. 385-412.
  • Valverde A, Doherty T.J. Pain management in cattle and small ruminants. Chapter 105.  In: D. Anderson, M. Rings (eds). Current Veterinary Therapy Food Animal Practice.  5th Edition.  Saunders, St. Louis, 2008, p.p. 534-542.
  • Doherty TJ, Valverde A (editors). Manual of Equine Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Blackwell Publications, 2006.
  • Valverde A. Recent advances in inhalation anesthesia. Chapter 19, in: JA Auer & JA Stick (eds) Equine Surgery.  3rd Edition.  Elsevier Health, 2006, pp. 219-223.

 

Journals:

Potency of inhalant anesthetics:

  • Gianotti G, Valverde A, Johnson R, Sinclair M, Gibson T, Dyson DH. Influence of prior determination of baseline minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane on the effect of ketamine on MAC in dogs. Can J Vet Res 2014; 78:207-213.
  • Gianotti G, Valverde A, Sinclair M, Dyson DH, Gibson T, Johnson R.  Prior determination of baseline isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) does not influence the effect of ketamine on MAC in rabbits. Can J Vet Res 2012; 76:261-267.
  • Ferreira TH, Aguiar AJA, Valverde A, Teixeira-Neto FJ, Steagall PVM, Soares JHN. Effects of remifentanil on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats. Am J Vet Res 2009;70:581-588.
  • Valverde A, Doherty TJ, Hernández J, Davies W. Effect of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2004; 31: 264-271.
  • Valverde A, Morey TE,  Hernández, J, Davies W. Validation of several types of noxious stimuli for use in determining the minimum alveolar concentration for inhalation anesthetics in dogs and rabbits. Am J Vet Res 2003; 64: 957-962.
  • Valverde A, Dyson DH, McDonell WN. Epidural morphine reduces halothane MAC in the dog. Can J Anaesth 1989; 36:629-632.

Anesthesia/analgesia and locoregional techniques:

  • Freitag FAV, Junior DSA, Muehlbauer E, Dornbush PT, Machado M, Montiani-Ferreira F, Farias ELP, Valverde A, Duque JCM. Ultrasound-guided modified subcostal transversus abdominis plane block and influence of recumbency position on dye spread in equine cadavers. Vet Anaesth Analg 2021; 48:596-602.
  • Skelding AM, Valverde A, Kilburn G. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of fentanyl-ketamine and fentanyl-lidocaine constant rate infusions in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs undergoing thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy for intervertebral disc extrusion. Vet Anaesth Analg 2021; 48:407-414.
  • Hernández-Avalos I, Valverde A, Ibancovichi-Camarillo JA, Sánchez-Aparicio P, Recillas-Morales S, Rodríguez-Velázquez D, Osorio-Avalos J, Magdaleno-Torres LA, Chavez-Monteagudo J, Acevedo-Arcique CM. Clinical use of the parasympathetic tone activity index as a measurement of postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. J Vet Res 2021; 65 https://doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2021-0004.
  • Delli-Rocili MM, Cribb N, Trout D, Thomason JJ, Valverde A. Effectiveness of a paravertebral nerve block versus local portal block for laparoscopic closure of the nephrosplenic space: a pilot study. Vet Surg 2020; 49:1007-1014.
  • Hernández-Avalos I, Valverde A, Ibancovichi-Camarillo JA, Sanchez-Aparicio P, Recillas-Morales S, Osorio-Avalos J, Rodríguez-Velázquez D, Miranda-Cortés AE. Clinical evaluation of postoperative analgesia, cardiorespiratory parameters and changes in liver and renal function tests of paracetamol compared to meloxicam and carprofen in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. PLoS ONE 2020; doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223697.
  • Valverde A, Skelding AM. Alternatives to Opioid Analgesia in Small Animal Anesthesia: Alpha-2 Agonists. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2019; 49:1013-1027.
  • Skelding A, Valverde A, Aguilera R, Moens NM, Sinclair, M, Thomason JJ. Comparison of three blind brachial plexus block techniques during maintenance of anesthesia and postoperative pain scores in dogs undergoing surgical procedures of the thoracic limb. Can J Vet Res 2019; 83:197-205.
  • Valverde A, Skelding A. Comparison of calculated lumbosacral epidural volumes of injectate using a dose regimen based on body weight versus length of the vertebral column in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2019; 46:135-140.
  • Skelding A, Valverde A, Sinclair M, Thomason J, Moens N. Anatomical characterization of the brachial plexus in dog cadavers and comparison of three blind techniques for blockade. Vet Anaesth Analg 2018; 45:203-211.
  • Valverde A. Alpha-2 agonists for pain therapy in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2010; 26:515-532.
  • Valverde A, Murrell J. Pain relief: Searching the clinical routes to this objective. Equine Vet J 2010; 42:482-483.
  • Valverde A. Epidural analgesia and anesthesia. Vet Clin North Am Small Animal Practice  2008; 38:1205-1230.
  • Valverde A, Gunkel C. Pain management in horses and farm animals. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2005; 15:295-307.
  • Valverde A, Little CB, Dyson DH, Motter CH. Use of epidural morphine in a horse for pain relief. Can Vet J 1990; 31:211-212.
  • Valverde A, Dyson DH, McDonell WN, Pascoe PJ. Use of epidural morphine in the dog for pain relief. Vet Compar Orth Traumatol 1989; 2:11-14.

Cardiorespiratory function, effects of anesthetic drugs, and sympathomimetics:

  • Skelding A, Valverde A. Sympathomimetics in veterinary species under anesthesia. Vet J 2020; 258; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2020.105455.
  • Uccello O, Sanchez A, Valverde A, Beaufrère H. Cardiovascular effects of increasing dosages of norepinephrine in healthy isoflurane-anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits. Vet Anaesth Analg 2020; 47:781-788.
  • Aguilera A, Sinclair M, Valverde A, Bateman S, Hanna B. Dose and cardiopulmonary effects of propofol alone or with midazolam for induction of anesthesia in critical ill dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2020; 47:472-480.
  • Kabakchiev C, Valverde A, Singh A, Beaufrère H. Cardiovascular and respiratory effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Can J Vet Res 2020; 84:108-114.
  • Skelding A, Valverde A. Review of non-invasive blood pressure measurement in veterinary species. Part two: Evaluation of the performance of non-invasive devices. Can Vet J 2020; 61:481-498.
  • Skelding A, Valverde A. Review of non-invasive blood pressure measurement in veterinary species. Part one: Techniques for measurement and validation of non-invasive devices. Can Vet J 2020; 61:368-374.
  • Scott JE, Singh A, Valverde A, Blois SL, Foster RA, Kilkenny JJ, zur Linden AR. Effect of pneumoperitoneum with warmed humidified or standard-temperature carbon dioxide during laparoscopy on core body temperature, cardiorespiratory variables and thromboelastography variables, systemic inflammation, peritoneal response, and signs of post-operative pain in healthy mature dogs. Am J Vet Res 2018; 79:1321-1334.
  • Sanchez A, Valverde A, Sinclair M, Mosley C, Singh A, Mutsaers AJ, Hanna B, Johnson R, Gu Y, Beaudoin-Kimble M. Antihistaminic and cardiorespiratory effects of diphenhydramine hydrochloride in anesthetized dogs undergoing excision of mast cell tumors. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017; 251:804-813.
  • Moran- Muñoz R, Valverde A, Ibancovichi JA, Acevedo-Arcique CM, Recillas-Morales S, Sanchez-Aparicio P, Osorio-Avalos J, Chavez-Monteagudo JR. Cardiovascular effects of constant rate infusions of lidocaine, lidocaine and dexmedetomidine, and dexmedetomidine in dogs anesthetized at equipotent doses of sevoflurane. Can Vet J 2017; 58:729-734.
  • Keating SC, Kerr CL, Valverde A, Johnson RJ, McDonell WN. Cardiopulmonary effects of intravenous fentanyl infusion in dogs during isoflurane anesthesia and with concurrent acepromazine or dexmedetomidine administration during anesthetic recovery. Am J Vet Res 2013; 75:672-682.
  • Valverde A, Gianotti G, Rioja E, Hathway E. Validation of an arterial pulse pressure waveform analysis monitor (FloTrac/Vigileo) for cardiac output determination in anesthetized dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2011; 21:328-334.
  • Shih A, Giguère SG, Sanchez LC, Valverde A, Bandt C, Jankunas H, Robertson S. Determination of cardiac output by ultrasound velocity dilution and its comparison with the lithium dilution method in neonatal foals. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2009; 19:438-443.
  • Solano AM, Valverde A, Desrochers, A, Nykamp S, Boure LP. Behavioural and cardiorespiratory effects  of a constant rate infusion of medetomidine and morphine for sedation during standing laparoscopy in horses. Equine Vet J 2009; 41:153-159.
  • Shih A, Giguère S, Sanchez C, Valverde A, Jankunas H, Robertson S. Determination of cardiac output by two pulse wave analysis techniques in anesthetized neonatal foals. Am J Vet Res 2009; 70:334-339.
  • Ethier MR, Mathews KA, Valverde A, Kerr C, Bersenas AM, Nykamp S. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of two sedative/analgesic protocols for assisted ventilation in healthy dogs. Am J Vet Res 2008; 69:1351-1359.
  • Valverde A, Giguère S, Morey TE, Sánchez LC, Shih A. Comparison of non-invasive cardiac output measurement by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing with the lithium dilution method in anesthetized foals. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68:141-147.
  • Valverde A, Giguère S, Sánchez LC, Shih A, Ryan C. Effects of dobutamine, norepinephrine and vasopressin on cardiovascular function in anesthetized neonatal foals with induced hypotension. Am J Vet Res 2006; 67:1730-1737.
  • Giguère S, Bucki E, Adin DB, Valverde A, Estrada AH. Cardiac output measurement by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing, 2-dimensional echocardiography, and lithium-dilution method in anesthetized neonatal foals. J Vet Inter Med 2005; 19:737-743.
  • Giguère S, Knowles HA, Valverde A, Bucki E, Young L. Accuracy of indirect measurement of blood pressure in neonatal foals. J Vet Intern Med 2005; 19:571-576.
  • Valverde A, Gunkel C, Doherty TJ, Giguère S, Pollak AS. Effect of a constant rate infusion of lidocaine on the quality of recovery from sevoflurane or isoflurane general anaesthesia in horses. Equine Vet J 2005; 37:559-564.
  • Gunkel C, Valverde A, Morey T, Hernandez J, Robertson SA. Comparison of non-invasive cardiac output measurement by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing with the lithium dilution method in anesthetized dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2004; 14:187-195.
  • Valverde A, Cantwell S, Hernández J, Brotherson C. Effects of acepromazine on the incidence of vomiting associated with opioid administration in dogs. Vet Anesth Analg 2004; 31:40-45.
  • Valverde A, Dyson DH, Cockshutt JR, McDonell WN, Valliant AE. Comparison of the hemodynamic effects of halothane alone and halothane combined with epidural morphine anesthesia in ventilated dogs. Am J Vet Res 1991; 52:505-509.
  • Doherty TJ, Valverde A, Pascoe PJ, Valliant AE. Evaluation of R51703 in cattle: Effects on cardiorespiratory function and rumen contraction rate. Can J Vet Res 1988; 52:481-483.

Anesthetic management:

  • Tisotti T, Valverde A, Hopkins A, O’Sullivan ML, Hanna B, Arroyo LG. Use of intravenous lidocaine to treat dexmedetomidine-induced bradycardia in sedated and anesthetized dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2021; 48:174-186.
  • Gomes-Quitzan J, Singh A, Beaufrere H, Valverde A, Lillie B, Salahshoor M, Bardelcik A, Saleh T.  Evaluation of the performance of an endoscopic 3-mm electrothermal bipolar vessel sealing device intended for single use following multiple use and resterilization cycles.  Vet Surg 2020; 49:120-130.
  • Scott J, Singh A, Valverde A. Pneumoperitoneum in Veterinary Laparoscopy: A Review. J Vet Sci 2020; 7:64.
  • Percival A, Singh A, Gartley C, Balsa I, Case JB, Mayhew PD, Oblak M, Brisson BA, Runge JJ, Valverde A, zur Linden RA, Gatineau M. Single Port Laparoscopic Treatment and Outcome of Dogs with Ovarian Remnant Syndrome: 13 Cases (2010-2018). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2020; 56:114-119.
  • Otomo A, Singh A, Valverde A, Beaufrere H, Mrotz V, Kilkenney J, zur Linden A. Comparison of outcome in dogs undergoing single-incision, laparoscopic-assisted intestinal surgery and open laparotomy for simple small intestinal foreign body removal. Vet Surg 2019; 48:83-90.
  • Percival A, Singh A, zur Linden A, Watrous G, Patten S, Valverde A, Ratsep E. Massive uterine lipoleiomyoma and leiomyoma in a miniature poodle bitch. Can Vet J 2018; 59:845-850.
  • Rainey B, Singh A, , Hoddinott K, Beaufrère H, Smith D, Tindal L. Laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy for the treatment of pyometra in a Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris). Can Vet J 2018; 59:895-898.
  • Liao P, Sinclair M, Valverde A, Mosley C, Chalmers H, MacKenzie S, Hanna B.  Induction dose and recovery quality of propofol and alfaxalone with or without midazolam coinduction followed by total intravenous anesthesia in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2017; 44:1016-1026.
  • Skelding A, Valverde A. Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome. Can Vet J 2017; 58:614-616.
  • Skelding AM, Valverde A. Anesthesia Case of the Month: Anesthesia –Associated Dystonia in a Dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017; 250:282-285.
  • Caines D, Sinclair M, Valverde A, Dyson D, Gaitero L, Nykamp S, Wood D. Comparison of isoflurane and propofol for maintenance of anesthesia in dogs with intracranial disease undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Vet Anaesth Analg 2014; 41:468-479.
  • Rioja E, Gianotti G, Valverde A. Clinical use of a low-dose medetomidine infusion in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Can Vet J 2013; 54:864-868.
  • Caines D, Sinclair M, Wood D, Valverde A, Dyson D, Gaitero L, Nykamp S. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid lactate and plasma lactate concentrations in dogs with and without intracranial disease. Can J Vet Res 2013; 77:297-302.
  • Valverde A, Crawshaw GJ, Cribb N, Bellei M, Gianotti G, Arroyo L, Koenig J, Kummrow M, Costa MC. Anesthetic management of a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) undergoing an emergency exploratory celiotomy for colic. Vet Anaesth Analg 2010; 37:280-285.
  • Esson DW, Wellehan JFX, Lafortune M, Valverde A, Citino SB. Surgical management of a malacic corneal ulcer in a greater one-horned Asian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) using a free island tarsoconjunctival graft. Vet Ophthalmol  2006; 9:65-69.
  • Gunkel C, Valverde A, Robertson SA, Thompson M, Keoughan C, Ferrel E.  Treatment for a severe reaction to intravenous diatrizoate in an anesthetized horse.  J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004; 224:1143-1146.
  • Bustamante R, Valverde A. Determination of a sedative dose and influence of droperidol and midazolam on cardiovascular function in pigs. Can J Vet Res 1997; 61:246-250.
  • Valverde A, Bienzle D, Dyson DH, Smith DA, Valliant AE. Intraosseous cannulation and drug administration for induction of anesthesia in chickens. Vet Surg 1993; 22:240-244.
  • Valverde A, Honeyman VL, Dyson DH, Valliant AE. Determination of a sedative dose and influence of midazolam on cardiopulmonary function in Canada geese. Am J Vet Res 1990; 51:1071-1074.
  • Valverde A, Boyd CJ, Dyson DH, Pascoe PJ. Prophylactic use of dantrolene associated with prolonged postanaesthetic recumbency in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990; 197:1051-1053.
  • Valverde A, Doherty TJ, Dyson DH, Valliant AE. Evaluation of pentobarbital as a drug for standing sedation in cattle. Vet Surg 1989; 18:235-238.

Equine anesthesia:

  • Vermedal H, Valverde A, Sears W. Effect of anesthesia time on the quality of recovery in horses undergoing elective and emergency surgeries at a single medical center. Can J Vet Res 2021; 85:193-200.
  • Valverde A, Black B, Cribb N, Hathway A, Daw A. Assessment of unassisted recovery from repeated general inhalant anaesthesia in horses following post-anaesthetic administration of xylazine or acepromazine or a combination of xylazine and ketamine. Vet Anaesth Analg 2013; 40:3-12.
  • Valverde A. Balanced anesthesia and constant rate infusions. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2013; 29:89-122.
  • Rioja E, Cernicchiaro N, Costa MC, Valverde A. Perioperative risk factors for mortality and length of hospitalization in mares with dystocia undergoing general anesthesia: A retrospective study. Can Vet J 2012; 53:502-510.
  • Valverde A, Rickey E, Sinclair M, Rioja E, Pedernera J, Hathway A, Cruz A. Comparison of cardiovascular function and quality of recovery in isoflurane-anaesthetised horses administered a constant rate infusion of lidocaine or lidocaine and medetomidine during elective surgery. Equine Vet J 2010; 42:192-199.
  • Sinclair M, Valverde A. Use of intravenous lidocaine with short-term anaesthesia with xylazine, diazepam/ketamine for castration in horses under field conditions. Equine Vet J 2009; 41:149-152.
  • Valverde A, Gunkel C, Doherty TJ, Giguère S, Pollak AS. Effect of a constant rate infusion of lidocaine on the quality of recovery from sevoflurane or isoflurane general anaesthesia in horses. Equine Vet J  2005; 37:559-564.
  • Koenig J, McDonell WN, Valverde A. Accuracy of pulse oximetry and capnography in healthy and compromised horses during spontaneous and controlled ventilation. Can J Vet Res 2003, 67: 169-174.

Fluid therapy:

  • Teixeira-Neto FJ, Valverde A. Clinical application of the fluid challenge approach in goal directed fluid therapy: what can we learn from human studies? Front Vet Sci 2021; 8:701377. https://doi: 10.3389/fvets.2021.701377.
  • Valverde A. Fluid resuscitation for refractory hypotension. Front Vet Sci 2021; 8:621696. https://doi: 10.3389/fvets.2021.621696.
  • Valverde A, Gianotti G, Rioja E, Hathway E. Effects of high-volume and rapid-fluid therapy on cardiovascular function and hematological values during isoflurane-induced hypotension in healthy dogs. Can J Vet Res 2012; 76:99-108.
  • Valverde A, Hatcher E, Stampfli HR. The effects of fluid therapy in the anesthetized dog on total protein and its influence on strong ion difference, anion gap, and unmeasured anions. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 2008; 18:480-487.

Pharmacokinetics:

  • Sanchez A, Valverde A, Sinclair M, Mosley C, Singh A, Mutsaers AJ, Hanna B, Gu Y, Johnson R. The pharmacokinetics of DPH after the administration of a single intravenous or intramuscular dose in healthy dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2016; 39:452-459.
  • Keating S, Kerr C, McDonell W, Valverde A, Johnson R, Knych H, Edginton A. Effects of acepromazine or dexmedetomidine on fentanyl disposition in dogs during recovery from isoflurane anesthesia. Vet Anaesth Analg 2016; 43:35-43.
  • Valverde A, Conlon PD, Dyson DH, Burger JP. Cisternal CSF and serum morphine concentrations following epidural administration in the dog. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1992; 15:91-95.

Search PubMed for additional publications by Dr. Valverde.