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Alex Valverde

Associate Professor   |   DVM, DVSc., Diplomate A.C.V.A.

Research Interests

  • Potency of inhalation anesthetics
  • Anesthesia/analgesia and epidural technique
  • Cardiorespiratory effects of anesthetic drugs and sympathomimetics
  • Equine recovery from anesthesia

Current Research:

  • Use of morphine for intravenous regional analgesia in horses
  • Assessment of the effect of prior noxious stimulation on minimum alveolar concentration determinations in the dog and rabbit
  • Pharmacokinetics of diphenhydramine in dogs
  • Neurohumoral and hemodynamic responses to hypovolemia in dogs anesthetized with remifentanil-isoflurane

Selected Publications

Books/Book chapters:

  • Doherty TJ, Valverde A. (2012) Sedation and anaesthesia. Chapter 24, In: Mair, Love, Schumacher, Fraze, Smith (eds) Equine Medicine, Surgery & Reproduction. 2nd Edition. Elsevier, In press (expected for September 2012)
  • Valverde A, Doherty T. (2008) Anesthesia and analgesia of ruminants. Chapter 14, In: R. Fish, PJ.Danneman, M. Brown, A. Karas (eds) Anesthesia and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals, Second Edition, p.p. 385-412.
  • Valverde A, Doherty T.J. (2008) Pain management in cattle and small ruminants. Chapter 105.  In: D. Anderson, M. Rings (eds). Current Veterinary Therapy Food Animal Practice.  5th Edition.  Saunders, St. Louis, p.p. 534-542.
  • Doherty TJ, Valverde A (editors). (2006) Manual of Equine Anaesthesia and Analgesia. Blackwell Publications.
  • Valverde A. (2006) Recent advances in inhalation anesthesia. Chapter 19, in: JA Auer & JA Stick (eds) Equine Surgery.  3rd Edition.  Elsevier Health, pp. 219-223.


Potency of inhalant anesthetics:

  • Ferreira TH, Aguiar AJA, Valverde A, Teixeira-Neto FJ, Steagall PVM, Soares JHN.  (2009)Effects of remifentanil on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in cats.  Am J Vet Res 70:581-588.
  • Valverde A, Doherty TJ, Hernández J, Davies W. (2004) Effect of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs.  Vet Anaesth Analg 31: 264-271.
  • Valverde A, Morey TE,  Hernández, J, Davies W. (2003) Validation of several types of noxious stimuli for use in determining the minimum alveolar concentration for inhalation anesthetics in dogs and rabbits.  Am J Vet Res 64: 957-962.

Anesthesia/analgesia and epidural technique:

  • Valverde A. (2010) Alpha-2 agonists for pain therapy in horses. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 26:515-532.
  • Valverde A, Murrell J. (2010) Pain relief: Searching the clinical routes to this objective. Equine Vet J 42:482-483.
  • Valverde A, Crawshaw GJ, Cribb N, Bellei M, Gianotti G, Arroyo L, Koenig J, Kummrow M, Costa MC. (2010) Anesthetic management of a white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) undergoing an emergency exploratory celiotomy for colic.  Vet Anaesth Analg 37:280-285.
  • Sinclair M, Valverde A. (2009) Use of intravenous lidocaine with short-term anaesthesia with xylazine, diazepam/ketamine for castration in horses under field conditions.  Equine Vet J 41:149-152.
  • Valverde A. (2008) Epidural analgesia and anesthesia. Vet Clin North Am Small Animal Practice  38:1205-1230.
  • Valverde A, Gunkel C. (2005) Pain management in horses and farm animals.  J Vet Emerg Crit Care 15:295-307.

Cardiorespiratory effects of anesthetic drugs and sympathomimetics:

  • Rioja E, Cernicchiaro N, Costa MC, Valverde A. (2012) Perioperative risk factors for mortality and length of hospitalization in mares with dystocia undergoing general anesthesia: A retrospective study. Can Vet J 53:502-510.
  • Valverde A, Gianotti G, Rioja E, Hathway E. (2012) Effects of high volume and rapid fluid therapy on cardiovascular function and hematological values during isoflurane induced hypotension in healthy dogs. Can J Vet Res 76:99-108.
  • Valverde A, Gianotti G, Rioja E, Hathway E. (2011) Validation of an arterial pulse pressure waveform analysis monitor (FloTrac/Vigileo) for cardiac output determination in anesthetized dogs. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 21:328-334.
  • Valverde A, Rickey E, Sinclair M, Rioja E, Pedernera J, Hathway A, Cruz A.  (2010)Comparison of cardiovascular function and quality of recovery in isoflurane-anaesthetised horses administered a constant rate infusion of lidocaine or lidocaine and medetomidine during elective surgery.  Equine Vet J 42:192-199.
  • Shih A, Giguère SG, Sanchez LC, Valverde A, Bandt C, Jankunas H, Robertson S. (2009)Determination of cardiac output by ultrasound velocity dilution and its comparison with the lithium dilution method in neonatal foals. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 19:438-443.
  • Solano AM, Valverde A, Desrochers, A, Nykamp S, Boure LP. (2009)  Behavioural and cardiorespiratory effects  of a constant rate infusion of medetomidine and morphine for sedation during standing laparoscopy in horses.  Equine Vet J 41:153-159.
  • Shih A, Giguère S, Sanchez C, Valverde A, Jankunas H, Robertson S. (2009)Determination of cardiac output by two pulse wave analysis techniques in anesthetized neonatal foals.  Am J Vet Res 70:334-339.
  • Ethier MR, Mathews KA, Valverde A, Kerr C, Bersenas AM, Nykamp S. (2008) Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of two sedative/analgesic protocols for assisted ventilation in healthy dogs.  Am J Vet Res 69:1351-1359.
  • Valverde A, Hatcher E, Stampfli HR. (2008) The effects of fluid therapy in the anesthetized dog on total protein and its influence on strong ion difference, anion gap, and unmeasured anions.  J Vet Emerg Crit Care 18:480-487.
  • Valverde A, Giguère S, Morey TE, Sánchez LC, Shih A. (2007) Comparison of non-invasive cardiac output measurement by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing with the lithium dilution method in anesthetized foals.  Am J Vet Res 68:141-147.
  • Valverde A, Giguère S, Sánchez LC, Shih A, Ryan C. (2006) Effects of dobutamine, norepinephrine and vasopressin on cardiovascular function in anesthetized neonatal foals with induced hypotension.  Am J Vet Res 67:1730-1737.
  • Giguère S, Bucki E, Adin DB, Valverde A, Estrada AH. (2005) Cardiac output measurement by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing, 2-dimensional echocardiography, and lithium-dilution method in anesthetized neonatal foals.  J Vet Inter Med 19:737-743.
  • Giguère S, Knowles HA, Valverde A, Bucki E, Young L. (2005) Accuracy of indirect measurement of blood pressure in neonatal foals.  J Vet Intern Med 19:571-576.
  • Valverde A, Gunkel C, Doherty TJ, Giguère S, Pollak AS. (2005)  Effect of a constant rate infusion of lidocaine on the quality of recovery from sevoflurane or isoflurane general anaesthesia in horses.  Equine Vet Journal 37:559-564.
  • Gunkel C, Valverde A, Morey T, Hernandez J, Robertson SA. (2004) Comparison of non-invasive cardiac output measurement by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing with the lithium dilution method in anesthetized dogs.  J Vet Emerg Crit Care 14:187-195.
  • Valverde A, Cantwell S, Hernández J, Brotherson C. (2004) Effects of acepromazine on the incidence of vomiting associated with opioid administration in dogs.  Vet Anesth Analg 31:40-45.

Recent work in press:

  • Valverde A. Balanced anesthesia and constant rate infusions. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract In press for 2013
  • Gianotti G, Valverde A, Sinclair M, Dyson DH, Gibson T, Johnson R.  Prior determination of baseline isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) does not influence the effect of ketamine on MAC in rabbits. Can J Vet Res In press for 2012
  • Valverde A, Black B, Cribb N, Hathway A, Daw A.  Assessment of unassisted recovery from repetitive general inhalant anaesthesia in horses following post-anaesthetic administration of xylazine or acepromazine or a combination of xylazine and ketamine. Vet Anaesth Analg In press for 2013

Search PubMed for additional publications by Dr. Valverde.