Topics for Zoonoses: Wildlife

Frequency, Distribution and Transmission

Himsworth CG, Zabek E, Desruisseau A, Parmley EJ, Reid-Smith R, Jardine CM, Tang P, Patrick DM.
Prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in the feces of wild urban Norway and Black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.
J Wildl Dis. 2015. Jul; 51(3): 589-600.

Himsworth CG, Bai Y, Kosoy MY, Wood H, DiBernardo A, Lindsay R, Bidulka J, Tang P, Jardine C, Patrick D.
An investigation of Bartonella spp., Rickettsia typhi, and Seoul hantavirus in rats (Rattus spp.) from an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada: is pathogen presence a reflection of global and local rat population structure?
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015. Jan; 15(1): 21-6.

Bondo KJ, Weese JS, Rouseau J, Jardine CM.
Longitudinal study of Clostridium difficile shedding in raccoons on swine farms and conservation areas in Ontario, Canada.
BMC Vet Res. 2015. Oct; 11 (1): 254

Werden L, Lindsay LR, Barker IK, Bowman J, Gonzales EK, Jardine CM.
Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Ixodes scapularis from a Newly Established Lyme Disease Endemic Area, the Thousand Islands Region of Ontario, Canada.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2015. Oct; 15(10): 627-9.

Thomas-Bachli AL, Pearl DL, Berke O, Parmley EJ, Barker IK
A comparison of West Nile virus surveillance using survival analyses of dead corvid and mosquito pool data in Ontario, 2002-2008.
Prev. Vet. Med. 2015. October

Cox SL, Campbell GD, Nemeth NM
Outbreaks of West Nile virus in captive waterfowl in Ontario, Canada. 
Avian Pathol. 2015. 44(2): 135-41.

Bandelj P, Trilar T, Blagus R, Ocepek M, Rousseau J, Weese JS, Vengust M.
Prevalence and molecular characterization of Clostridium difficile isolated from European Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica) during migration.
BMC Vet Res. 2014. Feb; 10: 40.

Jardine CM, Pearl DL, Puskas K, Campbell DG, Shirose L, Peregrine AS
The impact of land use, season, age, and sex on the prevalence and intensity of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in raccoons (Pryocon lotor) from Ontario, Canada
J WIldl Dis. 2014. Oct; 50(4): 784-91.

Allen SE, Ojkic D, Jardine CM.
Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira in wild mammals trapped on livestock farms in Ontario, Canada
J Wildl Dis. 2014. Jul; 50(3): 666-70.

Himsworth CG, Jardine CM, Parsons KL, Feng AY, Patrick DM.
The characteristics of wild rat (Rattus spp.) populations from an inner-city neighborhood with a focus on factors critical to the understanding of rat-associated zoonoses.
PLoS One. 2014. Mar; 9(3): e91654

Himsworth CG, Zabek E, Tang P, Parsons KL, Koehn M, Jardine CM, Patrick DM.
Bacteria isolated from conspecific bite wounds in Norway and black rats: implications for rat bite-associated infections in people.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2014. Feb; 14(2): 94-100.

Himsworth CG, Miller RR, Montoya V, Hoang L, Romney MG, Al-Rawahi GN, Kerr T, Jardine CM, Patrick DM, Tang P, Weese JS.
Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).
PLoS One. 2014. Feb; 9(2): e87983.

Himsworth CG, Patrick DM, Mak S, Jardine CM, Tang P, Weese JS.
Carriage of Clostridium difficile by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and black rats (Rattus rattus).
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014. Feb; 80(4):1299-305.

Jardine C, Lindsay LR, Nicholson VM, Ojkic D, Prescott JF.
Longitudinal study on the seroprevalence of avian influenza, leptospirosis, and tularemia in an urban population of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Ontario, Canada.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011 Jan. 11(1):37-42.

Jardine C, Reid-Smith RJ, Janecko N, Allan M, McEwen SA.
Salmonella in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in southern Ontario, Canada.
J Wildl Dis. 2011 Apr. 47(2):344-351

Granter A, Wille M, Whitney H, Robertson GJ, Ojkic D, Lang AS.
The genome sequence of an H11N2 avian influenza virus from a Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia) shows marine-specific and regional patterns of relationships to other viruses.
Virus Genes 2010 Oct. 41(2): 224-230.

Pasick J, Berhane Y, Kehler H, Hisanaga T, Handel K, Robinson J, Ojkic D, Kibenge F, Fortin M, King R, Hamel A, Spiro D, Parmley J, Soos C, Jenkins E, Breault A, Caswell D, Davies C, Rodrigue J, McAloney K, Leighton F.
Survey of influenza A viruses circulating in wild birds in Canada 2005 to 2007.
Avian Dis. 2010 Mar. 54:440-445.

Berke, O., Romig, T., von Keyserlingk, M.
Emergence of Echinococcus multilocularis among Red Foxes in northern Germany, 1991 – 2005
Veterinary Parasitology. 2008 Aug; 155(3-4):319-322

Ogden NH, St-Onge L, Barker IK, Brazeau S, Bigras-Poulin M, Charron DF, Francis CM, Heagy A, Lindsay LR, Maarouf A, Michel P, Milord F, O’Callaghan CJ, Trudel L, Thompson RA.
Risk maps for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, in Canada now and with climate change.
Int J Health Geogr. 2008 May 22;7:24.

Ogden NH, Lindsay LR, Hanincová K, Barker IK, Bigras-Poulin M, Charron DF, Heagy A, Francis CM, O’Callaghan CJ, Schwartz I, Thompson RA.
Role of migratory birds in introduction and range expansion of Ixodes scapularis ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Canada.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Mar;74(6):1780-90. Epub 2008 Feb 1.

Beroll H, Berke O, Wilson J, Barker IK.
Investigating the spatial risk distribution of West Nile virus disease in birds and humans in southern Ontario from 2002 to 2005.
Popul Health Metr. 2007 May 1;5:3.

Dubé C, Mehren KG, Barker IK, Peart BL, Balachandran A.
Retrospective investigation of chronic wasting disease of cervids at the Toronto Zoo, 1973-2003.
Can Vet J. 2006 Dec;47(12):1185-93.

Jardine, C., D. McColl, G. Wobeser, and F. A. Leighton.
Diversity of Bartonella genotypes in Richardson’s ground squirrel populations.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2006; 6:395-403.

Jardine, C., C. Waldner, G. Wobeser, and F. A. Leighton.
Demographic features of Bartonella infections in Richardson’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii).
Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006; 42:739-749.

Ogden NH, Trudel L, Artsob H, Barker IK, Beauchamp G, Charron DF, Drebot MA, Galloway TD, O’Handley R, Thompson RA, Lindsay LR.
Ixodes scapularis ticks collected by passive surveillance in Canada: analysis of geographic distribution and infection with Lyme borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi.
J Med Entomol. 2006 May;43(3):600-9.

Jardine, C., G. Appleyard, M.Y. Kosoy, D. McColl, M. Chirino-Trejo, G. Wobeser, and F. A. Leighton.
Rodent-associated Bartonella in Saskatchewan, Canada.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2005; 5:402-409.

Olea-Popelka, F. Flynn, O., Costello, E., McGrath, G., Collins, J. O’Keeffe, J., Kelton, D., Berke, O. and Martin, S.W.
Spatial relationship between Mycobacterium bovis strains in cattle and badgers in four areas in Ireland.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2005; 71(1-2):57-70.

Parmley, J., V. Bowes, P. Buck, A. Breault, D. Caswell, C. Davies, M. Elahi, M. Fortin, F. Kibenge, R. King, Y. Li, K. McAloney, N. North, D. Ojkic, J. Pasick, P. Pryor, J. Robinson , J. Rodrigue, M. Swendrowski, H. Whitney, P. Zimmer and F. A. Leighton.
Influenza viruses in wild ducks in Canada: PCR results from the 2005 wild bird influenza survey.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2008; 14:84-87.

Gancz AY, Barker IK, Lindsay R, Dibernardo A, McKeever K, Hunter B.
West Nile virus outbreak in North American owls, Ontario, 2002.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Dec;10(12):2135-42.

Bertelsen MF, Olberg RA, Crawshaw GJ, Dibernardo A, Lindsay LR, Drebot M, Barker IK.
West Nile virus infection in the eastern loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus migrans): pathology, epidemiology, and immunization.
J Wildl Dis. 2004 Jul;40(3):538-42.

Ølberg RA, Barker IK, Crawshaw GJ, Bertelsen MF, Drebot MA, Andonova M.
West Nile virus encephalitis in a Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus).
Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Apr;10(4):712-4.

Berke, O.
Choropleth mapping of regional count data of Echinococcus multilocularis among red foxes in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2001; 52:119-131.

Berke, O., Keyserlingk, M. von.
Increase of the prevalence of infection in red foxes in Lower Saxony (in German).
Deutsche tierärztliche Wochenschrift – German Veterinary Journal. 2001; 108:201-205.

Basic Research

Huang Y, Robertson GJ, Ojkic D, Whitney H, Lang AS.
Diverse inter-continental and host lineage reassortant avian influenza A viruses in pelagic seabirds
Infect Genet Evol. 2014. Mar; 22: 103-11.

Huang Y, Wille M, Dobbin A, Walzthöni NM, Robertson GJ, Ojkic D, Whitney H, Lang AS.
Genetic structure of avian influenza viruses from ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America
PLoS One. 2014. Jan 30; 9(1).

Huang Y, Wille M, Benkaroun J, Munro H, Bond AL, Fifield DA, Robertson GJ, Ojkic D, Whitney H, Lang AS.
Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic North America
Virology. 2014. May; 456-457: 353-63.

Wille M, Robertson GJ, Whitney H, Ojkic D, Lang AS.
Reassortment of American and Eurasian genes in an influenza A virus isolated from a great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), a species demonstrated to move between these regions.
Arch Virol.  2011 Jan. 156(1):107-115.

Yule AM, LePage V, Austin JW, Barker IK, Moccia RD.
Repeated low-level exposure of the round goby (Neogobius melanostomas) to Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin.
J Wildl Dis. 2006 Jul; 42(3):494-500.

Yule AM, Barker IK, Austin JW, Moccia RD.
Toxicity of Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin to Great Lakes fish: implications for avian botulism.
J Wildl Dis. 2006 Jul; 42(3):479-93.

Yule AM, Austin JW, Barker IK, Cadieux B, Moccia RD.
Persistence of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E in tissues from selected freshwater fish species: implications to public health.
J Food Prot. 2006 May; 69(5):1164-7.

Gancz AY, Smith DA, Barker IK, Lindsay R, Hunter B.
Pathology and tissue distribution of West Nile virus in North American owls (family: Strigidae).
Avian Pathol. 2006 Feb; 35(1):17-29.

Drebot MA, Lindsay R, Barker IK, Buck PA, Fearon M, Hunter F, Sockett P, Artsob H.
West Nile virus surveillance and diagnostics: A Canadian perspective.
Can J Infect Dis. 2003 Mar; 14(2):105-14.

Drebot MA, Lindsay R, Barker IK, Artsob H.
Characterization of a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis-like agent from Ixodes scapularis, Ontario, Canada.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 May-Jun; 7(3):479-80.
No abstract available.

Letocart M., P. Boerlin, F. Boerlin-Petzold, J. Goudet, G. Baranton, and P. Perolat.
Genetic structure of the genus Leptospira by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.
Intern. J. System. Bacteriol. 1999; 49:231-238.


Wille M, Huang Y, Robertson GJ, Ryan P, Wilhelm SI, Fifield D, Bond AL, Granter A, Munro H, Buxton R, Jones IL, Fitzsimmons MG, Burke C, Tranquilla LM, Rector M, Takahashi L, Kouwenberg AL, Storey A, Walsh C, Hedd A, Montevecchi WA, Runstadler JA, Ojkic D, Whitney H, Lang AS.
Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses. 
J Wildl Dis. 2014. Jan; 50(1): 98-103.

Olson SH, Parmley J, Soos C, Gilbert M, Latorre-Margalef N, Hall JS, Hansbro PM, Leighton F, Munster V, Joly D.
Sampling strategies and biodiversity of influenza A subtypes in wild boars.
PLoS One. 2014. Mar; 9(3): e9826.

Shearer KE, Harte MJ, Ojkic D, Delay J, Campbell D.
Detection of Leptospira spp. in wildlife reservoir hosts in Ontario through comparison of immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction genotyping methods.
Can Vet J. 2014. 55(3): 240-8

Velarde R, Calvin SE, Ojkic D, Barker IK, Nagy E.
Avian influenza virus H13 circulating in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) in southern Ontario, Canada.
Avian Dis. 2010 Mar. 54:411-419.

Pei Y, Swinton J, Ojkic D, Sharif S.
Genetic characterization of two low pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 isolates from Ontario, Canada.
Virus Genes. 2009 Feb;38(1):149-54.

Parmley EJ, Bastien N, Booth TF, Bowes V, Buck PA, Ojkic D, Breault A, et al.
Wild bird influenza survey, Canada, 2005.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jan; 14(1):84-87.

Gancz AY, Campbell DG, Barker IK, Lindsay R, Hunter B.
Detecting West Nile virus in owls and raptors by an antigen-capture assay.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Dec;10(12):2204-6.

Lindsay R, Barker I, Nayar G, Drebot M, Calvin S, Scammell C, Sachvie C, Fleur TS, Dibernardo A, Andonova M, Artsob H.
Rapid antigen-capture assay to detect West Nile virus in dead corvids.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Nov;9(11):1406-10.

Risk Factors

Werden L, Barker IK, Bowman J, Gonzales EK, Leighton PA, Lindsay LR, Jardine CM.
Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.
PLoS One. 2014. Jan; 9(1): e85640.

Ogden NH, Bigras-Poulin M, O’Callaghan CJ, Barker IK, Kurtenbach K, Lindsay LR, Charron DF.
Vector seasonality, host infection dynamics and fitness of pathogens transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis.
Parasitology. 2007 Feb;134(Pt 2):209-27. Epub 2006 Oct 11.

Ogden NH, Barker IK, Beauchamp G, Brazeau S, Charron DF, Maarouf A, Morshed MG, O’Callaghan CJ, Thompson RA, Waltner-Toews D, Waltner-Toews M, Lindsay LR.
Investigation of ground level and remote-sensed data for habitat classification and prediction of survival of Ixodes scapularis in habitats of southeastern Canada.
J Med Entomol. 2006 Mar;43(2):403-14.

Ogden NH, Maarouf A, Barker IK, Bigras-Poulin M, Lindsay LR, Morshed MG, O’Callaghan CJ, Ramay F, Waltner-Toews D, Charron DF.
Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada.
Int J Parasitol. 2006 Jan;36(1):63-70. Epub 2005 Oct 5.

Olea-Popelka F., Phelan, J, White P., Mc.Grath, G., Collins J., O’Keeffe, J., Duggan, M., Collins, D., Kelton D., Berke, O. and Martin S.W.
Quantifying badger exposure and the risk of bovine tuberculosis for cattle herds in county Kilkenny, Ireland. A case control study.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 75, 34-46, 2006.

Ogden NH, Bigras-Poulin M, O’Callaghan CJ, Barker IK, Lindsay LR, Maarouf A, Smoyer-Tomic KE, Waltner-Toews D, Charron D.
A dynamic population model to investigate effects of climate on geographic range and seasonality of the tick Ixodes scapularis.
Int J Parasitol. 2005 Apr 1;35(4):375-89.

Ogden NH, Lindsay LR, Beauchamp G, Charron D, Maarouf A, O’Callaghan CJ, Waltner-Toews D, Barker IK.
Investigation of relationships between temperature and developmental rates of tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.
J Med Entomol. 2004 Jul;41(4):622-33.

Barker IK, Lindsay LR.
Lyme borreliosis in Ontario: determining the risks.
CMAJ. 2000 May 30;162(11):1573-4.
No abstract available.

Lindsay LR, Mathison SW, Barker IK, McEwen SA, Gillespie TJ, Surgeoner GA.
Microclimate and habitat in relation to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) populations on Long Point, Ontario, Canada.
J Med Entomol. 1999 May;36(3):255-62.

Lindsay LR, Mathison SW, Barker IK, McEwen SA, Surgeoner GA.
Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae and nymphs in relation to host density and habitat on Long Point, Ontario.
J Med Entomol. 1999 May;36(3):243-54.

Prevention and Control

Totton SC, Wandeler AI, Ribble CS, Rosatte RC, McEwen SA.
Stray dog population health in Jodhpur, India in the wake of an animal birth control (ABC) program.
Prev Vet Med. 2011 Feb. 90(2-3):215-220.

Totton SC, Wandeler AI, Zinsstag J, Bauch CT, Ribble CS, Rosatte RC, McEwen SA.
Stray dog population demographics in Jodhpur, India following a population control/rabies vaccination program.
Prev Vet Med. 2010 Oct. 97(1):51-57.

Jardine, C., C. Waldner, G. Wobeser, and F. A. Leighton.
Effect of experimental ectoparasite control on Bartonella infections in wild Richardson’s ground squirrels.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006; 42(4):750-758.

Prevention and Control

Bondo KJ, Pearl DL, Janecko N, Boerlin P, Reid-Smith RJ, Parmley J, Jardine CM.
Epidemiology of Salmonella on the Paws and in the Faeces of Free-Ranging Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.
Zoonoses Public Health. 2015. September 25

Dutton CJ, Quinnell M, Lindsay R, DeLay J, Barker IK.
Paraparesis in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) associated with West Nile virus infection.
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009 Sep;40(3):568-71.

McLelland DJ, Dutton CJ, Barker IK.
Sarcomatoid carcinoma in the lung of an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).
J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009 Jan;21(1):160-3.

Waltner-Toews D, Jones AQ.
A philosophy and approach to teaching the epidemiology of food-borne, waterborne, and zoonotic diseases.
J Vet Med Educ. 2006 Winter;33(4):598-604.