Dr. Ameet Singh is refining minimally invasive surgical techniques such as laparoscopy that reduce post-operative pain and promote faster healing. In laparoscopy, carbon dioxide is injected into the abdominal cavity to expand the workspace and reduce obstructions for the surgeon. Typically the gas is used at room temperature, which is about 15 degrees cooler than a dog’s core body temperature. This may increase the risk of hypothermia during surgery that can lead to complications and prolonged recovery time. This study will investigate the effects of using warmed CO2 on cardiovascular function, core temperature, inflammatory response, coagulation and post-operative pain in healthy, mature dogs undergoing laparoscopy.