Topics for Zoonoses: Companion and Sporting Animals

Dogs and other animals can act as carriers of pathogens from one person to another, and carry zoonotic organisms such as leptospirosis and infections from pathogens such as Salmonella, Group A Streptococci and multidrug-resistant bacteria (e.g. MRSA). Current research at OVC includes studying the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents by companion animals in human hospital visitation programs. Also, researchers are trying to discover better ways of preventing serious hospital-based outbreaks of infections in animals, and these efforts often have direct application to preventing disease outbreaks in human health. Currently scientists at OVC are working with others to prevent and gain understanding about clostridium difficile in humans.

Frequency, Distribution and Transmission

Jardine CM, Buchanan T, Ojkic D, Campbell GD, Bowman J.
Frequency of Virus Coinfection in Raccoons ( Procyon lotor) and Striped Skunks ( Mephitis mephitis) During a Concurrent Rabies and Canine Distemper Outbreak.
J Wildl Dis. 2018 Mar 8. doi: 10.7589/2017-04-072.

Nyambura Njuguna A, Kagira JM, Muturi Karanja S, Ngotho M, Mutharia L, Wangari Maina N.
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Other Gastrointestinal Parasites in Domestic Cats from Households in Thika Region, Kenya.
Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:7615810. doi: 10.1155/2017/7615810. Epub 2017

Damborg P, Broens EM, Chomel BB, Guenther S, Pasmans F, Wagenaar JA, Weese JS, Wieler LH, Windahl U, Vanrompay D, Guardabassi L.
Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Targeted Research and Policy Actions.
J Comp Pathol. 2015. May.

Schvartz G, Epp T, Burgess HJ, Chilton NB, Pearl DL, Lohmann KL.
Seroprevalence of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis and lyme borreliosis in Canada as determined by a point-of-care enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Can Vet J. 2015. Jun; 56(6): 575-80.

Stull JW, Slavić D, Rousseau J, Weese JS.
Staphylococcus delphini and methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius in horses, Canada.
Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2014. Mar; 20(3): 485-7.

Procter TD, Pearl DL, Finley RL, Leonard EK, Janecko N, Reid-Smith RJ, Weese JS, Peregrine AS, Sargeant JM.
A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.
Zoonoses Public Health. 2014. Jun; 61(4):250-9.

Procter TD, Pearl DL, Finley RL, Leonard EK, Janecko N, Reid-Smith RJ, Weese JS, Peregrine AS, Sargeant JM.
A cross-sectional study examining Campylobacter and other zoonotic enteric pathogens in dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario and risk factors for shedding of Campylobacter spp.
Zoonoses Public Health. 2014. May; 61(3): 208-218.

Medina-Torres CE, Weese JS, Staempfli HR.
Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in horses.
Vet Microbiol. 2011 Aug. 152(1-2):212-215.

Murphy CP, Reid-Smith RJ, Boerlin P, Weese JS, Prescott JF, Janecko N, Hassard L, McEwen SA.
Escherichia coli and selected veterinary and zoonotic pathogens isolated from environmental sites in companion animal veterinary hospitals in southern Ontario.
Can Vet J. 2010 Sep. 51(9):963-972.

Hanselman BA, Kruth SA, Rousseau J, Weese JS.
Coagulase positive staphylococcal colonization of humans and their household pets.
Can Vet J. 2009 Sep;50(9):954-8

Faires MC, Tater KC, Weese JS.
An investigation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in people and pets in the same household with an infected person or infected pet.
J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009 Sep 1;235(5): 540-3

Rutland BE, Weese JS, Bolin C, Au J, Malani AN.
Human-to-dog transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;15(8):1328-30

Brown, K., Prescott, J. F. .
Leptospirosis in the family dog: A public health perspective.
Can Med Assoc J. 2008; 178: 399-401.

McEwen, B., Ojkic, D., Prescott, J.
Canine leptospirosis update.
AHL Newsletter 2008; 12:16.

Prescott, J. F.
Canine leptospirosis in Canada: A veterinarian’s perspective.
Can Med Assoc J. 2008; 178:397-398.

J Clooten, S Kruth, LG Arroyo, JS Weese
Prevalence and risk factors for Clostridium difficile colonization in dogs and cats hospitalized in an intensive care unit.
Veterinary Microbiology. 2008;129:209-214.

Hoff, B., McEwen, B. and Peregrine, A.S.
A survey for infection with Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Babesia canis, in feral and client-owned dogs in the Turks and Caicos Islands, British West Indies.
Canadian Veterinary Journal. 2008; 49:593-594.

Epp T., Waldner, C., Leighton, F.A., Berke, O., Townsend, H.G.G.
Seroprevalence and risk factors for infection with West Nile virus in Saskatchewan horses, 2003.
Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 71:256-263, 2007.

Weese JS, McCarthy L, Mossop M, Martin H, Lefebvre S.
Observation of practices at petting zoos and the potential impact on zoonotic disease transmission.
Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007;45: 10-15.

Arroyo LG, Stämpfli HR, Weese JS.
Potential role of Clostridium difficile as a cause of duodenitis-proximal jejunitis in horses.
J Med Microbiol. 2006 May;55(Pt 5):605-8.

Webb, J.A., Keller, S.L., Southorn, E.P., Armstrong, J., Allen D.G., Peregrine, A.S. and Dubey, J.P.
Cutaneous manifestations of disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunosuppressed dog.
Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association. 2005; 41:198-202.

Prescott JF, McEwen B, Taylor J, Woods JP, Abrams-Ogg A, Wilcock B.
Resurgence of leptospirosis in dogs in Ontario: recent findings.
Can. Vet. J. 2002;43:955-961.

Boerlin P., S. Eugster, F. Gaschen, R. Straub, and P. Schawalder.
Transmission of opportunistic pathogens in a Teaching Hospital.
Vet. Microbiol. 2001;82:347-359.

Weese JS, Staempfli HR, Prescott JF, Kruth SA, Greenwood SJ, Weese HE.
The roles of Clostridium difficile and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in diarrhea in dogs.
J Vet Intern Med. 2001; 15:374-378.

Weese, J.S., Stämpfli, H.R., Prescott, J.F.
A prospective study of the roles of clostridium difficile and enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens in equine diarrhoea.
Equine Vet. J.2001; 33(4):403-409.

Bröjer, J.T., Parsons, D.A., Linder, K.E., Peregrine, A.S. and Dobson, H. (2000)
Halicephalobus gingivalis encephalomyelitis in a horse.
Canadian Veterinary Journal 41, 559-561

Anderson, R.C., Linder, K.E. and Peregrine, A.S.
Halicephalobus gingivalis (Stefanski, 1954) from a fatal infection in a horse in Ontario, Canada with comments on the validity of H. deletrix and a review of the genus.
Parasite. 1998; 5: 255-261.

Basic Research

Mehdizadeh Gohari I, Kropinski AM, Weese SJ, Parreira VR, Whitehead AE, Boerlin P, Prescott JF.
Plasmid Characterization and Chromosome Analysis of Two netF+ Clostridium perfringens Isolates Associated with Foal and Canine Necrotizing Enteritis
PLoS ONE 2016 Feb; 11 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148344

Huang Y, Robertson GJ, Ojkic D, Whitney H, Lang AS.
Diverse inter-continental and host lineage reassortant avian influenza A viruses in pelagic seabirds
Infect Genet Evol. 2014. Mar; 22: 103-11.

Huang Y, Wille M, Dobbin A, Walzthöni NM, Robertson GJ, Ojkic D, Whitney H, Lang AS.
Genetic structure of avian influenza viruses from ducks of the Atlantic flyway of North America
PLoS One. 2014. Jan 30; 9(1).

Huang Y, Wille M, Benkaroun J, Munro H, Bond AL, Fifield DA, Robertson GJ, Ojkic D, Whitney H, Lang AS.
Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic North America
Virology. 2014. May; 456-457: 353-63.

Wille M, Robertson GJ, Whitney H, Ojkic D, Lang AS.
Reassortment of American and Eurasian genes in an influenza A virus isolated from a great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), a species demonstrated to move between these regions.
Arch Virol.  2011 Jan. 156(1):107-115.

Yule AM, LePage V, Austin JW, Barker IK, Moccia RD.
Repeated low-level exposure of the round goby (Neogobius melanostomas) to Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin.
J Wildl Dis. 2006 Jul; 42(3):494-500.

Yule AM, Barker IK, Austin JW, Moccia RD.
Toxicity of Clostridium botulinum type E neurotoxin to Great Lakes fish: implications for avian botulism.
J Wildl Dis. 2006 Jul; 42(3):479-93.

Yule AM, Austin JW, Barker IK, Cadieux B, Moccia RD.
Persistence of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin type E in tissues from selected freshwater fish species: implications to public health.
J Food Prot. 2006 May; 69(5):1164-7.

Gancz AY, Smith DA, Barker IK, Lindsay R, Hunter B.
Pathology and tissue distribution of West Nile virus in North American owls (family: Strigidae).
Avian Pathol. 2006 Feb; 35(1):17-29.

Drebot MA, Lindsay R, Barker IK, Buck PA, Fearon M, Hunter F, Sockett P, Artsob H.
West Nile virus surveillance and diagnostics: A Canadian perspective.
Can J Infect Dis. 2003 Mar; 14(2):105-14.

Drebot MA, Lindsay R, Barker IK, Artsob H.
Characterization of a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis-like agent from Ixodes scapularis, Ontario, Canada.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2001 May-Jun; 7(3):479-80.
No abstract available.

Letocart M., P. Boerlin, F. Boerlin-Petzold, J. Goudet, G. Baranton, and P. Perolat.
Genetic structure of the genus Leptospira by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.
Intern. J. System. Bacteriol. 1999; 49:231-238.


Wille M, Huang Y, Robertson GJ, Ryan P, Wilhelm SI, Fifield D, Bond AL, Granter A, Munro H, Buxton R, Jones IL, Fitzsimmons MG, Burke C, Tranquilla LM, Rector M, Takahashi L, Kouwenberg AL, Storey A, Walsh C, Hedd A, Montevecchi WA, Runstadler JA, Ojkic D, Whitney H, Lang AS.
Evaluation of seabirds in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, as hosts of influenza A viruses. 
J Wildl Dis. 2014. Jan; 50(1): 98-103.

Olson SH, Parmley J, Soos C, Gilbert M, Latorre-Margalef N, Hall JS, Hansbro PM, Leighton F, Munster V, Joly D.
Sampling strategies and biodiversity of influenza A subtypes in wild boars.
PLoS One. 2014. Mar; 9(3): e9826.

Shearer KE, Harte MJ, Ojkic D, Delay J, Campbell D.
Detection of Leptospira spp. in wildlife reservoir hosts in Ontario through comparison of immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction genotyping methods.
Can Vet J. 2014. 55(3): 240-8

Velarde R, Calvin SE, Ojkic D, Barker IK, Nagy E.
Avian influenza virus H13 circulating in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) in southern Ontario, Canada.
Avian Dis. 2010 Mar. 54:411-419.

Pei Y, Swinton J, Ojkic D, Sharif S.
Genetic characterization of two low pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 isolates from Ontario, Canada.
Virus Genes. 2009 Feb;38(1):149-54.

Parmley EJ, Bastien N, Booth TF, Bowes V, Buck PA, Ojkic D, Breault A, et al.
Wild bird influenza survey, Canada, 2005.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jan; 14(1):84-87.

Gancz AY, Campbell DG, Barker IK, Lindsay R, Hunter B.
Detecting West Nile virus in owls and raptors by an antigen-capture assay.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2004 Dec;10(12):2204-6.

Lindsay R, Barker I, Nayar G, Drebot M, Calvin S, Scammell C, Sachvie C, Fleur TS, Dibernardo A, Andonova M, Artsob H.
Rapid antigen-capture assay to detect West Nile virus in dead corvids.
Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Nov;9(11):1406-10.

Risk Factors

Werden L, Barker IK, Bowman J, Gonzales EK, Leighton PA, Lindsay LR, Jardine CM.
Geography, deer, and host biodiversity shape the pattern of Lyme disease emergence in the Thousand Islands Archipelago of Ontario, Canada.
PLoS One. 2014. Jan; 9(1): e85640.

Ogden NH, Bigras-Poulin M, O’Callaghan CJ, Barker IK, Kurtenbach K, Lindsay LR, Charron DF.
Vector seasonality, host infection dynamics and fitness of pathogens transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis.
Parasitology. 2007 Feb;134(Pt 2):209-27. Epub 2006 Oct 11.

Ogden NH, Barker IK, Beauchamp G, Brazeau S, Charron DF, Maarouf A, Morshed MG, O’Callaghan CJ, Thompson RA, Waltner-Toews D, Waltner-Toews M, Lindsay LR.
Investigation of ground level and remote-sensed data for habitat classification and prediction of survival of Ixodes scapularis in habitats of southeastern Canada.
J Med Entomol. 2006 Mar;43(2):403-14.

Ogden NH, Maarouf A, Barker IK, Bigras-Poulin M, Lindsay LR, Morshed MG, O’Callaghan CJ, Ramay F, Waltner-Toews D, Charron DF.
Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada.
Int J Parasitol. 2006 Jan;36(1):63-70. Epub 2005 Oct 5.

Olea-Popelka F., Phelan, J, White P., Mc.Grath, G., Collins J., O’Keeffe, J., Duggan, M., Collins, D., Kelton D., Berke, O. and Martin S.W.
Quantifying badger exposure and the risk of bovine tuberculosis for cattle herds in county Kilkenny, Ireland. A case control study.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 75, 34-46, 2006.

Ogden NH, Bigras-Poulin M, O’Callaghan CJ, Barker IK, Lindsay LR, Maarouf A, Smoyer-Tomic KE, Waltner-Toews D, Charron D.
A dynamic population model to investigate effects of climate on geographic range and seasonality of the tick Ixodes scapularis.
Int J Parasitol. 2005 Apr 1;35(4):375-89.

Ogden NH, Lindsay LR, Beauchamp G, Charron D, Maarouf A, O’Callaghan CJ, Waltner-Toews D, Barker IK.
Investigation of relationships between temperature and developmental rates of tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in the laboratory and field.
J Med Entomol. 2004 Jul;41(4):622-33.

Barker IK, Lindsay LR.
Lyme borreliosis in Ontario: determining the risks.
CMAJ. 2000 May 30;162(11):1573-4.
No abstract available.

Lindsay LR, Mathison SW, Barker IK, McEwen SA, Gillespie TJ, Surgeoner GA.
Microclimate and habitat in relation to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) populations on Long Point, Ontario, Canada.
J Med Entomol. 1999 May;36(3):255-62.

Lindsay LR, Mathison SW, Barker IK, McEwen SA, Surgeoner GA.
Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae and nymphs in relation to host density and habitat on Long Point, Ontario.
J Med Entomol. 1999 May;36(3):243-54.

Prevention and Control

Totton SC, Wandeler AI, Ribble CS, Rosatte RC, McEwen SA.
Stray dog population health in Jodhpur, India in the wake of an animal birth control (ABC) program.
Prev Vet Med. 2011 Feb. 90(2-3):215-220.

Totton SC, Wandeler AI, Zinsstag J, Bauch CT, Ribble CS, Rosatte RC, McEwen SA.
Stray dog population demographics in Jodhpur, India following a population control/rabies vaccination program.
Prev Vet Med. 2010 Oct. 97(1):51-57.

Jardine, C., C. Waldner, G. Wobeser, and F. A. Leighton.
Effect of experimental ectoparasite control on Bartonella infections in wild Richardson’s ground squirrels.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 2006; 42(4):750-758.

Prevention and Control

Bondo KJ, Pearl DL, Janecko N, Boerlin P, Reid-Smith RJ, Parmley J, Jardine CM.
Epidemiology of Salmonella on the Paws and in the Faeces of Free-Ranging Raccoons (Procyon Lotor) in Southern Ontario, Canada.
Zoonoses Public Health. 2015. September 25

Dutton CJ, Quinnell M, Lindsay R, DeLay J, Barker IK.
Paraparesis in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) associated with West Nile virus infection.
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009 Sep;40(3):568-71.

McLelland DJ, Dutton CJ, Barker IK.
Sarcomatoid carcinoma in the lung of an Egyptian fruit bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).
J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009 Jan;21(1):160-3.

Waltner-Toews D, Jones AQ.
A philosophy and approach to teaching the epidemiology of food-borne, waterborne, and zoonotic diseases.
J Vet Med Educ. 2006 Winter;33(4):598-604.